CEA co-authors a paper reflecting on the past, present and future of bird and mammal risk assessment for plant protection products in the European Union

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Amy Brooks and Alan Lawrence have co-authored a paper on the past, present and future of bird and mammal risk assessment, together with Juan Pascual (BASF), Rachel Sharp (EFSA) and Michael Fryer (HSE). The Focus article discusses experiences to date with the current scheme, including levels of conservatism in input parameters and interpretation by regulatory authorities together with proposals for how the guidance document could be improved when it is revised in the not too distant future. Several areas for which further guidance is recommended have been identified, such as the derivation of ecologically relevant bird and mammal reproductive endpoints and the use of modelling approaches to contextualize risk assessments. Areas where existing databases could be improved were also highlighted, including the collation of relevant focal species across Europe and expansion of the residue database for food items. To produce a realistic and useable guidance document in the future, it is strongly recommended that there is open and constructive communication between industry, regulatory authorities, and the EFSA. Such collaboration would also encourage harmonization between member states, thus reducing workloads for both industry and regulatory authorities.

The manuscript can be accessed via the following link:

Comments/questions? Please feel free to contact Amy Brooks at

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